Thursday, July 31, 2008

Milton Friedman's 96th Birthday


I was asked to give a speech to a gathering assembled by the Cascade Policy Insitute on the occasion of Milton Friedman's 96th birthday, which I gave today.


Milton Friedman: The most influential economist in history

I can't tell you what an honor it is to be here today, and have the chance to pay tribute, on what would have been his 96th birthday, to a man who had a profound affect on my life. Though I never met him, I always felt as if my life and career was somehow steered by the power of Milton Friedman's ideas.

Milton Friedman is my hero.

A lasting regret of mine is that I didn't make more of a concerted effort to meet him before he died. That, of course, is my fault and my loss, but even never having met Milton Friedman, he had a profound influence on my education, my understanding of the world, and my career.

As Matt said, the first time I remember hearing the name Milton Friedman was in my first college economics class, at Willamette University in 1978. He was already a towering intellectual figure, two years removed from winning the Nobel Prize in economics.

At the time, as many of you my age or above recall, the U.S. was in the throes of an economic phenomenon that was not supposed to happen under the prevailing orthodoxy of macroeconomics at the time - Keynesianism. In the Keynesian world, high inflation was always accompanied by low unemployment, and vice versa. The Phillips Curve.

The Keynesian view was overwhelmingly the consensus view among economists and policymakers in 1978. As President Nixon once famously said: "We're all Keynesians now." Well, everybody except Milton Friedman.

But in the '70s, we got "Stagflation:" high inflation at the same time as a high unemployment rate. That wasn't supposed to happen, in a Keynesian world, and nobody knew what to do. Well, nobody but Milton Friedman.

Friedman had long argued that the Keynesian policy of "fine tuning" an economy through government fiscal and monetary policy was wrong, and had predicted that the long post WWII expansion - during which time the Keynesian policies ruled - would come to an abrupt end.

So in the late 1970's, as the Keynesian world was shattered, Milton Friedman was looking very prophetic. Short term interest rates were touching 20% and inflation was in the mid-teens. Unemployment above 10% - For the first time his alternative to Keynesian macroeconomics – Monetarism - gained traction among economists and policymakers.

It was in the middle of this national debate that I started studying economics at Willamette. My economics advisor at the time had spent a recent summer at the University of Chicago, where he met Milton Friedman and learned about the "Chicago School."

As I spent my two years at Willamette, taking more econ classes and talking with my advisor, The Chicago School, and the name Milton Friedman came up time and again. Clearly, Chicago was the place to be for economics. Encouraged by my advisor, I decided to transfer to Chicago, and continue my studies there.

I came from a family of public school teachers. By this time my father was an administrator - he was a high school principal in the Beaverton School District. Both my parents were good Democrats, liberals. I thought I was too. I dutifully voted for Jimmy Carter in my first presidential year ballot. And of course, as a family, we were very pro-public education.

I arrived at Chicago in 1980, a small town boy in a big city school. I was wide eyed, to be sure. But I was ready for a big academic challenge. What I wasn't ready for, and what I certainly didn't anticipate, was to have every my every political and economic and social assumption challenged, probed, and questioned by the ideas of Milton Friedman and The Chicago School of Economics.

Milton Friedman was gone from Chicago by then - at least physically. He left the year before for the Hoover Institute. But he wasn't really gone. Friedman's shadow loomed large over the economics department at Chicago. His wit, his disarming charm, his debate style - he was legendary and we all tried to mimic him.

But his ideas: they were the most powerful. Milton Friedman was a man who cared about ideas, who was defined by his ideas, and whose ideas were so powerful, so compelling, so robust that time and again they were the force behind major social changes that we still benefit from today.

All the ideas and policies that Milton Friedman became known for had one overarching theme: freedom. Individual liberty. Milton Friedman believed individual freedom is a moral good. He once said that his main theme in public policy was the promotion of freedom. And there has never been a more articulate voice in defense of freedom than Milton Friedman.

He is arguably is the most influential economist in history in terms of providing the intellectual and theoretical basis for major changes in public policy in areas that affected - and continue to affect, every single one of our lives.

His monetarist approach to macroeconomics was adopted by Fed Chairman Paul Volcker, and was largely responsible for taming the inflation monster of the 1970's. It required a temporary spike in interest rates and a deep recession, but the monetarist approach of targeting money supply rather than interest rates prevailed. Since 1981, a time when the Fed has largely pursued a monetarist approach, swings in the business cycle have been much less frequent, and less severe than the 50 years before.

Friedman was instrumental in ending the Military Draft, he argued that conscription was an immoral limitation of freedom by government- indeed, a form of slavery. He thought that an all volunteer military would be more effective anyway. He convinced Nixon to end the draft in 1973.

Friedman argued for a system of floating international currencies, and convinced Nixon to end the Bretton Woods system that pegged foreign currencies to the dollar, and the dollar to gold.

Throughout the cold war, a time when many of Friedman's colleagues we beguiled by communism, seeing it as just another valid form of political economy. Friedman saw it for what it was: an inherently immoral ideology that survived only enslaving its subjects. He was one of the first to predict that communism would fail. At a time when many of his fellow economists spoke of the efficiency and superiority of a planned economy, Friedman knew that bureaucrats were no match for markets.

Among those who Friedman convinced about this was Ronald Reagan. Reagan broughtabout the Soviet Union's collapse not through military confrontation per-se, but by putting pressure on its inherently contradictory economic system. Friedman was right: the Soviet Union economy collapsed.

In looking at Milton Friedman's life work, it is interesting to ponder just what was it about this man that made him so right about so many things? Why could he see so clearly what so many of his colleagues were blind to? How did he know that Keynesian policies would fail, that communism would fail, and that a volunteer military was superior?

I think it is because, as accomplished and expert as he was on all of the subjects he studied, his clarity of vision wasn't really because he understood the subjects better than his contemporaries, but because he understood FREEDOM better than his contemporaries.

For Milton Friedman, freedom was the cardinal virtue. He knew in the core of his being that policies, laws, economic systems, and political regimes that were based on limiting freedom were inferior, and would fail. So he didn't necessarily have to know more about every subject than others to be able to see things more clearly. (That said, he always DID know more about every subject than anyone else.)

Milton Friedman also applied his cardinal principle of freedom to education. Fifty three years ago - 1955 - he coined the word voucher when he proposed that a better way to provide education services would be through a system of parental choice.

Interestingly, as much a supporter of unfettered free markets as he was, Milton Friedman had no qualms with public funding of education. He was an economist first, and he recognized the conditions of "market failure" that justify government involvement in the marketplace.

When a cost of a product can be forced on parties not involved in the transaction - like industrial pollution - Friedman recognized that there is a role for government. He called these "neighborhood effects,"

He knew that neighborhood effects can be both negative AND positive. That is, there are some services that benefit everybody when provided, not just the person who consumes them. Friedman thought that education was one of these services. Everyone benefits from an educated populace, so there is a valid role for government to subsidize education.

So Friedman supported government-funded education. What he understood wasthat government need not be the service provider - and in fact there were very good reasons why the government, although it should fund education, it SHOULD NOT run the schools.

Friedman proposed, in 1955, parents should be given a voucher that they could use to send their child to any school of their choosing. In 1955, this was a radical idea. Dissatisfaction with the public school system back then barely registered. There were no teachers unions. Most school districts were still quite small. The education bureaucracy was a fraction of its current size.

Yet Friedman saw what would be the future of the public school system under its current structure as clearly as he saw the future of Soviet Communism: any system based on coercion rather than freedom is doomed to fail. He understood, way back in 1955, that a school system that was not based on parental choice would end up being operated for the benefit of the adults in the system, rather than the children.

This brings me to one of the enduring truths I heard Milton Friedman say, something I have always kept in mind as I’ve worked in the political arena here in Oregon. I don't remember the exact setting - it was a TV interview I saw him give. He said:

"Politics 101 tells us that any political arena will over time become co-opted by the concentrated interests at the expense of the diffuse interests."

Milton Friedman saw the inevitable path of the public school system because he understood this truth. In the political arena of public schools, the employees are the concentrated interests. They can organize easily, raise funds, influence elections, lobby the legislature and co-opt the political process. The parents and children – they are the diffuse interests: they number in the hundreds of thousands, they are not easily organized, and each has only a small comparative stake in the outcome compared to the employees.

So Friedman saw, way back in 1955, that if the public school system stayed with the model of government operated schools, they would evolve to serve the adults in the system rather than the students they were supposed to educate.

Friedman wrote and spoke about his voucher idea regularly for the next forty years, but it wasn't until 1990 that things started to happen. That year, Oregon voted on a school choice ballot measure (sponsored by Steve Buckstein - the first statewide vote on a school choice plan in the nation) That failed, but later that year the Wisconsin legislature passed a voucher plan for residents of the city of Milwaukee – the first voucher in the country.

Things took off from there. In 1991, Minnesota passed the nation’s first charter school law, and by the end of the decade, 80% of the states had some form of a charter law.

In 1996, Friedman started the Friedman Foundation, in order to help establish school choice programs in the U.S. (Actually, Milton Friedman and his wife, Rose, started the foundation, the formal name of which is the Milton & Rose Friedman Foundation. I would be remiss not to mention Rose, because she was an award winning economist in her own right. She grew up in Portland, and is still alive.)

I remember when I first heard about the foundation. Its President, Gordon St. Angelo, kicked it off by going on the Rush Limbaugh show. I had recently become active in the school choice arena here in Oregon, in no small part because of Friedman's intellectual work on the school choice.

I found the number, called and spoke to Mr. St. Angelo that very day. I couldn't believe that my hero had started a foundation to assist people like me!

I've been blessed to have had their help over the years on all sorts of issues as we've struggled to make headway on school choice in Oregon.

The fact that Friedman devoted his life's fortune to reforming the school system speaks volumes. He was the world's leading authority on monetary policy. His body of work spanned decades and encompassed dozens of subjects. But when it came time to decide on how to invest his financial legacy in the future of our nation, he chose school choice.

If freedom was the overarching theme for all his pursuits, he obviously considered educational freedom to be the most pressing issue for our future.

Since the Friedman Foundation was founded in 1996, it has made a huge difference. 14 states now have some type of tax credit or voucher program established in law, and the Friedman Foundation has been active in helping every single one since its founding.

They've helped in Oregon, too. I know they have been very helpful with Matt's tax credit project. Heavens knows, Oregon needs the help.

Can we have school choice in Oregon? Can we extend the movement beyond our modest charter school law? Can Oregon join the list of 14 states that have passed legislation for some kind of tax credit or voucher plan?

Well it took three legislative sessions to get our charter school law passed, and I remember the long odds we were told we faced when we started. But we succeeded, and now there will be nearly 90 charter schools opening their doors for school next month here in Oregon.

The "concentrated interests" in Oregon were against the charter school law from the start, and they still try every single legislative session to kill the law. And since they haven't been able to kill the law, they take aim at the most successful schools.

You've probably heard or read about the Oregon Connections Academy, Oregon's largest on-line charter school. Connections Academy has more than 1800 students, who are taught at home through an innovative combination of on-line lessons and traditional school activities. To say this school is a success is a huge understatement. They hoped to enroll 500 students in the first year, but ended up having to turn down more than 1000 applications, after enrolling 800. This fall it will have well more than 2000 students from every corner of the state, making it one of the largest schools of any kind in Oregon.

In other words, it is a very big target for the concentrated interests who are threatened by the existence of schools that they do not control. The Teachers Union is trying to shut the school down. We’ve been through several battles against the union and their proxies already, and they will not ever stop. It is their expressed intent to close the doors of the Oregon Connections Academy, and tell 2000 students, and their parents, that their choice doesn’t matter.

Can you imagine a better illustration of the immorality of a system based on coercion?

What can we do? Well, what would Milton Friedman do? Give up?

He argued for decades that the Soviet Union would fail before it collapsed under the weight of its own inherent contradictions. The concentrated interests in the education arena are no different. Their existence depends on limiting the freedom of others. They look very strong – but so did the USSR when Carter was President. A school system built on coercion and limiting choices is inferior, and will eventually fail. Milton Friedman knew this.

I believe he saw the future of the public school system with the same clarity as he saw the future of the Soviet Union, and for the same reasons. And I believe he started his foundation to help give a push, an assist to bring about more quickly what he could see was the inexorable force of history.

And so here today, we look at the political environment in Oregon and think the prospects for getting school choice – for instance, passing legislation such as Matt Wingard proposes -- looks bleak: the deck is stacked against us. The teachers unions are strong, the Democrats are in control and they oppose us, the media is not on our side.

But we have one big advantage, an advantage that I think Milton Friedman understood better than anyone, which is why he was so prescient: We are on the right side of history.

The history of humanity is the history of the extension of human freedom from all forms of political bondage.

So, take heart! School choice is just one facet of this long term march to freedom. History is on our side. Our enemy is weaker than you think. The object in the mirror is smaller than it appears.

Happy 96th Birthday, Milton Friedman.

31 comments:

UC GSB 89 said...

As an 89 MBA Chicago grad, the place had 4 or 5 Nobels, just in the Biz school! They all were influenced by Milton.

And it is all about freedom. Free enterprise. Free markets. Freedom.

That is why the union school system is doomed to failure without freedom of choice. But that failure will have a huge cost to our country and our kids, and that cost won't be paid off for decades, just like the former Soviet block is still paying the huge price for their failed communist systems even today and for many decades to come.

Patrick said...

Rob,

Thank you for posting the text from your speech today. I attended the event and you did a great job. I was hoping that your text would get posted somewhere, as there were several nuggets to appreciate and think about again.

As a parent of two young sons and a lover of education and freedom myself, thank you for all of the hard work and effort that you have put into this issue over the last several years. The citizens of Oregon, and especially the children of Oregon, are much better for it.

Keep up the good work!

huck said...

Hey Rob, good post. As a student of economics and law, I've studied both Mr. Friedman and his legal disciples, such as Judge Posner. While I agree with so many of his views, you can probably guess I disagree with a few.

1) I must say that the complete abolition of the draft, while beneficial for the active military, has been overall a negative for our democracy. I believe he was right at the time, but at present I think we need a national participation in a quasi-National Guard.

2) I think he was right about the Soviet Union, but not necessarily about communism in theory. Don't get me wrong, I don't even think communism works among a very small group of like-minded individuals, let alone across a vast society, but that doesn't mean some principles can be gleaned from the perspective. Specifically, some government planning can be efficient. It's rare, but it can and does happen, like our national rail and highway systems - a very socialist concept.

3) I support school vouchers and the public school system, and believe in the benefits of experimentation and competition. That said, I also believe there are benefits to the social integration at "bad" schools assisting in the spread of ideas amongst peers - an often overlooked role of the school systems.

Rob, I appreciate your work, keep it up. Don't take my liberal contentions here or over at Bog's blog the wrong way. I'm pretty open-minded, but highly value the role of devil's advocate, and love good public discourse. I also do my best to bend the ear of my many liberal friends (what can I say, I live in Oregon).

Rob Kremer said...

Huck -

Interesting stuff. Thanks for chiming in. And no, I don't at all take your "liberal contentions" the wrong way. It would be boring here without them!

On your point #1: I understand the notion of creating a shared set of values through some kind of mandatory public service, but I still think the risks and the costs outweigh what benefit might come from it. I guess I am Friedman-style libertarian on that one.

2) Can planning EVER work? Sure. Actually, roads are a bad example, because even MF would acknowledge that infrastructure like roads are a legitimate role of gov't because of "neighborhood effects" (or what I learned to call "positive externalities.") Rail, I will totally disagree, at least for passenger uses.

3) There is an interesting discussion to have on the question you pose about social integration in public schools. Too late to get into now, but it is a very interesting question, which cuts across ideological divides, I think. Maybe we will have the discussion on this blog soon.

Thanks - always fun to discuss things with people who have a different perspective. I appreciate your input and your reasoned positions.

jk said...

I must say that the complete abolition of the draft, while beneficial for the active military, has been overall a negative for our democracy. I believe he was right at the time, but at present I think we need a national participation in a quasi-National Guard.
JK: I take it that you are for the repeal of the constitutional prohibitation against involuntary servitude. Why don’t you start a movement today?

Thanks
JK

huck said...

JK - Are you making some interesting constitutional argument against the draft? I don't know much about involuntary servitude, but I would imagine that an amendment would make the draft constitutional even if what you're saying is true. You're an interesting cat, JK, and I have quite a bit of libertarianism in me that appreciates what you say, but I just read too much absolutism in your comments. No such thing, senor.

huck said...

Rob - I probably just don't know enough about the risks of some military training. And I agree about the roads as community effect creators.

As for the rail, I agree with all the arguments against rail from an efficiency perspective, but I (as you probably gleaned from my arguments about the carbon c&t scheme) believe in the potential for an efficiency gain even in rail when viewing our transportation system as a portfolio, and taking into account the potential for gains due to networking theory. I won't even claim to be up to snuff on the numbers, but I'm open to it, and skeptical of arguments that rail "cannot" work at passenger delivery. That's all, open to one, and skeptical to the other - not closed to either. Now that I'm done with law school hopefully I can get back up to par as an informed citizen.

Anonymous said...

Dear, Mr.Kremer
I'm seeking for Mr. Friedman's middle name. Do you know his middle name?
Thank you very much

chengja said...

Alex Rodriguez,the playerwow goldwho would restore integrity to baseball's homewow goldrunre cord,admittedwow goldMonday towow goldusing performance-enhancingwow goldwow golddrugs himself.

chengja said...

The All-Star thirddofus kamasdofus kamasbaseman said in an interviewkamas dofusacheter dofuswith ESPN that he used steroids with the Texas Rangers for three years,from 2001-03,in an attemptbuy kamasacheter kamasto justify his status as the game's highest-paid player after signing a 10-year.

chengja said...

Back then it wasworld of warcraft golda different culture,Rodriguezcheap wow goldsaid.It waswow orvery loose.I was young.I waswow power levelingstupid.

chengja said...

He said he quitbuy wow goldcheap wow goldafter 2003,hiswow power levelingdofus kamasfirst of three AL MVP seasons,because I've provedbuy ffxi gilLord of the Rings Online goldto myself and to everyone that I don't need any of that.

chengja said...

When I arrivedwow goldin Texas in 2001,Iwow goldfelt an enormous amount of pressure.I feltwow goldwow goldlike I had all the weightwow goldof the world on top of me and I needed to perform.

song said...

wow gold
wow gold
eve isk
wow power leveling
wow power leveling
wow power leveling
wow power leveling
warhammer gold
warhammer power leveling
bestchina traveland
uggsor
ghd straighteners

Cardi Ugg Boots
Classic Short Ugg Boots

Classic Tall Ugg Boots
Metallic Ugg Boots

Mini Ugg Boots
Sundance Ugg Boots

tiffany Jewelry
















[url=http://www.akgame.com]wow gold[/url]
[url=http://www.wowgoldbank.com]wow gold[/url]
[url=http://www.akgame.com/eve-online-c-8.html]eve isk[/url]
[url=http://www.wow-power-leveling.com]wow power leveling[/url]
[url=http://www.akgame.com/wow-power-leveling-c-9.html]wow power leveling[/url]
[url=http://www.cheap-power-leveling.com]wow power leveling[/url]
[url=http://www.fast-power-leveling.com]wow power leveling[/url]
[url=http://www.akgame.com/warhammer-online-c-64.html]warhammer gold[/url]
[url=http://www.akgame.com/warhammer-power-leveling-c-92.html]warhammer power leveling[/url]
best[url=http://www.topchinatrip.com]china travel[/url]and
[url=http://www.shoppingugg.com]uggs[/url]or

Anonymous said...

Do you know the Atlantica online Gold, in the game you need the Atlantica Gold. it can help you increase your level. My friends always asked me how to buy Atlantica online Gold, i do not know he spend how much money to buy the Atlantica online money, when i see him in order to play the game and search which the place can buy the cheap Atlantica online Gold . i also happy with him.

I do not know why I was very like to play the EVE, so I need eve isk and the eve gold , do you know the eve online isk.

Anonymous said...

It is the holic gold which makes me very happy these days, my brother says holic money is his favorite games gold he likes, he usually holic online gold to start his game and most of the time he will win the cheap holic gold back and give me some holic online money to play the game.
I am so happy to get some kal geons and the kal gold is given by my close friend who tells me that the kal online geons is the basis to enter into the game. Therefore, I should kal online gold with the spare money and I gain some kalonline Geons from other players.

said...

You know ,I have some flyff penya,and my friend also has some
flyff money,do you kouw they have the same meaning,Both of them can be called flyff gold,I just want to
buy flyff penya,because there are many
cheap penyaYou know ,I have some maple mesos,and my friend also has some mesos,do you kouw they have the same meaning,Both of them can be called maplestory mesos,I just want to
buy flyff penya ,because there are many
cheap mesos

Anonymous said...

seal cegel and the swordsman in the seal online. Is it solo able in the sealonline cegel? It is not too bad, you should survive pretty well with seal online cegel if you equipment is up to date. Someone would like me who just reached IVI90 be able to survive more than one hit because cheap seal cegel. The work of the reward system works without buy seal online cegel.
silkroad gold in the silkroad you may or may not notice. I know vitality is very tempting in sro gold. You may be feeling intelligence in silk road gold. You are going to be getting crab pincers which like silkroad online gold, depending on which server you are on. cheap silkroad gold can help you get a high level in short time.

lanzi said...

I can getmaple mesoscheaply,
Yesterday i boughtmesos for my brother.
i hope him like it. i will give maplestory mesos to him
as birthday present. i like the cheap mesos very much.
I usually buymaple story mesos and keep it in my store.

I can getmaple mesoscheaply,
Yesterday i boughtmesos for my brother.
i hope him like it. i will give maplestory mesos to him
as birthday present. i like the cheap mesos very much.
I usually buymaple story mesos and keep it in my store.

Anonymous said...

As a new player , you may need some game guides or information to enhance yourself.
Rose zuly is one of the hardest theme for every class at the beginning . You must have a good way to manage your rose zulie.If yor are a lucky guy ,you can earn so many rose online zuly by yourself . But if you are a not , I just find a nice way to get rose online zulie. If you need , you can Arua ROSE zuly at our website . Go to the related page and check the detailed information . Once you have any question , you can connect our customer service at any time .


Making angels goldis the old question : Honestly there is no fast way to make lots of angels online gold . Sadly enough a lot of the people that all of a sudden come to with millions of buy angels gold almost overnight probably duped .
here I will tell you all of the ways that I know and what I do to cheap angels online gold.

xiaoqiu said...

rohan crone has many ways for us to use. When you start the Rohan Online game, your character will be level 1. I remembered that when I started playing this Rohan game with some little cheap rohan money. My friends all told me that the best way to spend rohan online gold is a good way. But I could not like spending my own rohan online crone. If you do not like upgrading level step by step, you can cost rohan gold to help your character to reach level high.
rf gold which in RF Online Game is very popular for many players. Play this online game the premise that we have more enough rf online gold first. They are able to combine creative tools and weapons with some rf money and the Light form of universal magic. Under such sustained attacks they fell from power, yet they have bided their rf cp and time. Due to make cheap rf gold the intense gravity on their home planet, the Bellato are the smallest people.

yanhui said...

I think EtherSaga is my favorite game, I did not know how to play at first, someone told me that you must have EtherSaga Online Gold. That he gave me some EtherSaga Gold, and then he said that I could buy EtherSaga Gold, but I did not have so much money, and then I played it in all my spare time. From then on, I have got a lot of EtherSaga Online money, if I did not continue to play it, you can buy cheap EtherSaga Gold.

chinese aion server kina said...

aion china, aion china gold,
aion cn goldaion chinese gold,
aion gold chinaaion gold chinese,
china aion goldchinese aion gold,
aion china kinaaion chinese kina,
aion kina chinachina aion kina,
aion china buybuy aion china,
aion chinese server goldaion cn server gold,
aion china server goldchina aion server gold,
chinese aion server goldaion chinese server gold,
aion cn server kinaaion china server kina,
china aion server kinachinese aion server kina

seal online cegel said...

Now do you worried about that in the game do not had enough Scions Of Fate gold to play the game, now you can not worried, my friend told me a website, in here you can buy a lot SOF gold and only spend a little money, do not hesitate, it was really, in here we had much Scions Of Fate money, we can sure that you will get the cheap SOF gold, quick to come here to buy sof gold.

Now do you worried about that in the game do not had enough seal cegel to play the game, now you can not worried, my friend told me a website, in here you can buy a lot sealonline cegel and only spend a little money, do not hesitate, it was really, in here we had much seal online cegel, we can sure that you will get the cheap seal cegel, quick to come here to buy seal online cegel.

Anonymous said...

Vgoldzone.One school Runescape Gold of thought Buy Runescape Gold claims this day emerged Runescape Money from a custom Cheap Runescape Money of mother Runescape worship in Runescape Gold For Sale ancient Greece, which kept Runescape Money For Sale a festival to Cybele, a great Runescape Power Leveling mother of Greek gods. This festival Runescape Items was held around the Vernal Equinox around Asia Minor and Buy Runescape Money eventually in Rome itself from Cheap Runescape Gold the Ides of Runescape Equipments March (15 March) to 18 March.

cheap aion kina said...

Now do you worried about that in the game do not had enough aion kina to play the game, now you can not worried, my friend told me a website, in here you can buy a lot aion online kina and only spend a little money, do not hesitate, it was really, in here we had much aion gold, we can sure that you will get the cheap aion kina, quick to come here to buy aion kina.

Anonymous said...

29047126483369175 I play dofus Replica Watches for one year, I Replica Rolex Watches want to get some Replica Watch kamas to buy Replica Chanel Watches item for my character. So, I search "Replica Swiss Watches" on google and found many website. As Exact Replica Graham Watch the tips from the forum, I just review the Swiss Replica Watches websites and choose some Replica Montblanc Watches quality sites to Replica Cartier Watches compare the price, and go to their Replica Breguet Watches online support to make Replica Breitling Watches the test. And Last Chaos Gold I decide to use Replica BRM Watch at the end. And Tag Heuer Replica Watch that is the Replica IWC Watch beginning..

yiran said...

Your blog is very good, it's the best blog I've ever seen, thank you!
By the way, do you like polo shirts, which are very chic, especially the polo t shirts, I love them very much. I also like playing tennis rackets, it can keep healthy, what do you like to do?
polo t shirts women
polo t shirts on sale
polo t shirts for women
polo shirts on sale
polo shirts men
men's polo shirt
men polo shirt
mens polo shirts
mens polo shirt
cheap polo shirts
discount polo shirts
men's polo shirts
women's polo shirts
cheap tennis racket
discount tennis racket
prince tennis racquet
head tennis rackets
wilson tennis racket
babolat tennis racquet

bike arenal said...

Costa rica tours, shopping online, costa rica fishing, jaco fishing charters, costa rica whale watching, costa rica dolphin watching, costa rica party boat, panama fishing, fishing costa rica los suenos, los suenos fishing charters, costa rica fishing los suenos, los suenos costa rica fishing, costa rica los suenos fishing, fishing costa rica los suenos, los suenos fishing charters, costa rica fishing los suenos, los suenos costa rica fishing charters, costa rica los suenos fishing, Los suenos fishing, Fishing costa rica los suenos, Costa Rica Rafting,
http://www.kingtours.com/.

Ephesus said...

I loved every moment of our tour. Istanbul, cappadocia and ephesus are fantastic city. We saw so many historical places and guide was very informative. We definitely recommend it. http://www.packagetoursturkey.com - http://www.touroperatoristanbul.com We visited Istanbul for the first time on your tour turkey tours we are from Cappadocia tours Greece and we just loved it! istanbul tours We finally were able to see sights that we had only heard from our friends who visited I have to say that this trip was fantastic. I had a great time in Turkey. Everything went on very well actually much better than we expected istanbul travel Our guide was very friendly and ephesus tours he knew all details of history. Thanks for everything.

istanbul said...

TTG Travel Agency is a leading travel agency and tour operator in istanbul Turkey with more than seven years of professional travel service. Because of our dedication and commitment to your needs istanbul travel we are able to offer you better quality of service at lower prices than other operators. http://www.istanbulhotels.com We provide hundreds of elaborately pre-designed Turkey tour packages, Turkey tours discounted, Guided turkey hotels and Turkey Tours, and we also provide customized travel service that is organized according to your specific needs and requirements http://www.istanbulhotels.com Our tours are professionally guided, intimate, and safe.